For long time Thelazia callipaeda has been considered to be mainly distributed in the Russian Federation and the Far East (China, Japan, India, Indonesia, Thailand, Korea, Myanmar, etc.) (Bhaibulaya et al., 1970; Hong et al., 1995; Kosin et al., 1989). However, this nematode infection has meanwhile also been detected in Europe (e.g., Italy (e.g., Otranto et al., 2003a; Rossi and Bertaglia, 1989), France (Dorchies et al., 2007), Switzerland (Schnyder et al, 2007, Malacrida et al., 2008).

T. californiensis has been reported only in the western USA (Dozie et al., 1996; Skrjabin et al., 1967).

Further information

  • Bhaibulaya M, Prasertsilpa S, Vajrasthira S: Thelazia callipaeda Railliet and Henry, 1910, in man and dog in Thailand. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1970, 19, 476-9
  • Dorchies P, Chaudieu G, Siméon LA, et al.: First reports of autochthonous eyeworm infection by Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) in dogs and cat from France. Vet Parasitol. 2007, 149, 294-7
  • Dozie AM, Lucius RW, Aldeen W, et al.: Thelazia californiensis conjunctival infestation. Opht Lit. 1996, 49, 225
  • Hong ST, Park YK, Lee SK, et al.: Two human cases of Thelazia callipaeda infection in Korea. Korean J Parasitol. 1995, 33, 139-44
  • Kosin E, Kosman ML, Depary AA: First case of human thelaziasis in Indonesia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1989, 20, 233-6
  • Malacrida F, Hegglin D, Bacciarini L, et al.:Emergence of canine ocular thelaziosis caused by Thelazia callipaeda in southern Switzerland. Vet Parasitol. 2008, 157, 321-7
  • Otranto D, Ferroglio E, Lia RP, et al.: Current status and epidemiological observation of Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) in dogs, cats and foxes in Italy: a "coincidence" or a parasitic disease of the Old Continent? Vet Parasitol. 2003a, 116, 315-25
  • Rossi L, Bertaglia PP: Presence of Thelazia callipaeda Railliet & Henry, 1910, in Piedmont, Italy. Parassitologia. 1989, 31, 167-72
  • Schnyder M, Malacrida F, Bacciarini L, et al.: Autochthonus transmission of Thelazia callipaeda in southern Switzerland. 21st Int Conf of the WAAVP, Ghent, Belgium, 2007, 055, p. 157
  • Skrjabin KI, Sobolev AA, Ivashkin VM: Spirurata of animals and man and the disease caused by them (Part 4): Thelazioidea. In: Skrjabin KI (ed.): Principles of Nematology. Vol. IX, 1967, Izdatel’sto Akademii Nauk SSSR, Moscow; English translation published by Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, 1971
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