Hepatozoon canis commonly infects dogs in warm and temperate regions of Africa, Southern Europe (like Spain, Portugal, France, Italy and Greece), the Middle East, Asia, and also in the USA, reflecting the geographical distribution of its major vector, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Brown Dog tick). Further tick vectors are Ixodes canisuga and presumably also Haemaphysalis longicornis and H. flava.

A separate species (Hepatozoon americanum) is transmitted by the tick Amblyomma maculatum in the southern USA.

Hepatozoon canis is commonly associated with other diseases as co-infection, in particular
ehrlichiosis, leishmaniosis and babesiosis in endemic areas, and clinical presentations are variable.


Further information

  • Baneth G: Hepatozoonosis. In: Arthropod-borne Diseases. 2002, Sci. Proc. BSAVA Congress, Birmingham, pp 187-9
  • Shaw SE, Day MJ, Birtles RJ, et al.: Tick-borne infectious diseases of dogs. Trends Parasitol. 2001, 17, 74-80
  • CVBD World Occurrence Map

Occurrence Maps

Each country has its specific occurrence of CVBDs depending on climate and endemic vectors. See the maps

Clinical Sessions

The following authentic case reports provide insights into selected CVBD cases

View all

Interesting Links

CVBD and parasito­logical relevant websites. More...

CVBD Digest Articles

Findings from the CVBD symposia. More...