Canine babesiosis is mainly caused by Babesia canis, B. rossi, B. vogeli and increasingly by B. gibsoni. Among the disease-causing species B. canis is the prevalent species in Europe, B. rossi in South Africa and B. vogeli in Southern Europe, tropical and semitropical regions worldwide. B. gibsoni causes disease in Africa, Asia, USA, Southern Europe, the Middle East and Australia. The relatively new detected further small and large Babesia and Theileria species have a quite restricted geographical distribution: the unnamed large Babesia sp. (Babesia sp. (Coco)) in North Carolina, Theileria annae in Spain and Portugal, an unnamed Theilerai sp. in South Africa and T. equi and T. annulata in Africa, Europe and Asia. The relative importance of tick species in the transmission of canine babesiosis varies with geographical location.


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