Developmental Cycle



The pupae of sand flies are 3 mm long and club-shaped. The narrow part is curved and head and thorax are curved backwards. The posterior segments are covered with the exuviae of the fourth-stage larva. With it the pupa is attached to the substrate in a usually vertical position (Perfil'ev, 1968). After approximately 5-10 days the adult emerges.



  • Perfil'ev, P.P.: Fauna of U.S.S.R. Diptera. Phlebotomidae (sandflies). Acad. Sci. U.S.S.R. Zool. Inst. New Ser. No. 93, Vol. 3 No. 2, Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, 1968

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