Developmental Cycle



The pupa is often called tumbler. It is aquatic and quite active, and breathes at the surface through a pair of small trumpetlike structures on the thorax. It does not feed.

With the exception of Mansonia and Coquillettidia species the pupae remain at the water surface, where they breathe. When disturbed, they rapidly swim up and down, as seen in larvae.

Pupal development takes 2-3 days in tropical and probably a week or more in temperate areas.

Occurrence Maps

Each country has its specific occurrence of CVBDs depending on climate and endemic vectors. See the maps

Clinical Sessions

The following authentic case reports provide insights into selected CVBD cases

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Interesting Links

CVBD and parasito­logical relevant websites. More...

CVBD Digest Articles

Findings from the CVBD symposia. More...