Triatomines transmit Trypanosoma cruzi to a variety of domestic and wild animals. Depending on the strain of trypanosome, the species and age of the host infected and other poorly understood factors, the infection can lead to disease. Some 150 mammal species are susceptible to T. cruzi, with possible high prevalences in dogs, cats, rodents, and both domestic and wild lagomorphs, constituting an important reservoir for human infection.
Depending on the type of habitat (sylvatic, peridomestic, domestic) wild or domestic animals as well as humans are frequented by triatomines for blood feeding. Amphibians, lizards, opossums, rodents, armadillos, sloths and bats are some of the wild animals used as food source. Many of the so-called peridomestic species, as well as a few domestic ones, have maintained sylvatic adaptations and may migrate from wild hosts to domestic animals and humans, depending on the availability of suitable habitats and hosts.