Tabanids are present on every continent except Antarctica and have managed to colonise remote islands such as the Galapagos and the Melanesian Archipelago. Large seasonal populations of some species occur as far as 60° N latitude, but they disappear above tree line. Diversity within the family is greatest in the tropics, but moist temperate regions have a rich fauna as well (Mullens, 2002).
- Mullens BA: Horse flies and deer flies (Tabanidae). In: Mullen G, Durden L (eds.): Medical and Veterinary Entomology. 2002, Academic Press, London, pp 263-77