print

Developmental Cycle

back

Pupa

The pupae of sand flies are 3 mm long and club-shaped. The narrow part is curved and head and thorax are curved backwards. The posterior segments are covered with the exuviae of the fourth-stage larva. With it the pupa is attached to the substrate in a usually vertical position (Perfil'ev, 1968). After approximately 5-10 days the adult emerges.

   

References

  • Perfil'ev, P.P.: Fauna of U.S.S.R. Diptera. Phlebotomidae (sandflies). Acad. Sci. U.S.S.R. Zool. Inst. New Ser. No. 93, Vol. 3 No. 2, Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, 1968

Occurrence Maps

Each country has its specific occurrence of CVBDs depending on climate and endemic vectors. See the maps

Clinical Sessions

The following authentic case reports provide insights into selected CVBD cases

View all

Interesting Links

CVBD and parasito­logical relevant websites. More...

CVBD Digest Articles

Findings from the CVBD symposia. More...