Best protection may be provided by regular use of anti-parasitic products with a repellent action.
Further control measures can be aimed at the larvae or the adults.
Elimination or modification of larval habitats are practiced on a small or large scale. Areas are drained or filled in to eradicate breeding sites. Marshy areas are dug out to create impoundments containing uninterrupted standing water, which is unsuitable as a larval breeding habitat for many species. Nowadays the impact on the ecosystem limits the practicability of these control measures. Other devices are the use of covers or screens to prevent egg deposition in domestic water containers or cisterns.
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is used as microbial insecticide, with its spores containing a crystalline endotoxin which induces the lysis of midgut cells of the larvae.
Other biological control in form of larvivorous fish (e.g. Gambusia sp.) and other agents, has not proved to be very effective in reducing biting densities of mosquitoes or disease transmission.
In the case of mosquitoes as pests and disease vectors for man and companion animals, in general larval control is impractical and hardly effective.
It can be performed by the use of preventives (e.g. protective clothing, screening, bed nets), repellents, on its own respectively in combination with the former preventives, or insecticides (sprays or aerosols). Mosquito screening over windows and doors, as well as bed nets, especially if impregnated with pyrethroid insecticides can offer personal protection.
Insect repellents on man and domestic animals provide a degree of protection. Ultra-low-volume (ULV) spraying can often give rapid, but temporary relief in restricted areas. Spraying of residual insecticides in the area of houses has been practised as successful control especially against endophilic mosquitoes with a relatively long period of effectivity. It has been used worldwide in anti-malaria campaigns.
In veterinary medicine, insecticides have been used for decades, especially to protect life stock against insects. In companion animals, especially dogs, insecticides have been used as soap, shampoos, sprays or collars to name the most important formulations. Nowadays especially topical so called spot-on formulations as well as collars prevent companion animals from mosquito bites.