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Canine Bartonellosis

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Distribution

Bartonella spp. have a widespread, global distribution with varying species present among countries from North and South America, Europe, Africa, Asia and Australia. Seroprevalences are also very different depending on the Bartonella species and the country.

Several studies designed to determine the importance of cats as a reservoir for B. henselae showed that prevalence of infection varies considerably among cat populations. Low prevalence rates were detected in cold climates whereas high rates were found in warm and humid climates.

Concerning the infection of dogs with B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, a world-wide distribution is supposed. The epidemiologic situation seems quite distinct between tropical areas, where several studies have shown a high prevalence of antibodies – especially in stray dogs – and more northern regions, where very low rates of prevalence have been detected in domestic dogs, kept as pets.

Further information

  • Agan BK, Dolan MJ: Laboratory diagnosis of Bartonella infections. Clin Lab Med. 2002, 22, 937-62
  • Billeter SA, Levy MG, Chomel BB, et al.: Vector transmission of Bartonella species with emphasis on the potential for tick transmission. Med Vet Entomol. 2008, 22, 1-15
  • Boulouis HJ, Chang CC, Henn JB, et al.: Factors associated with the rapid emergence of zoonotic Bartonella infections. Vet Res. 2005, 36, 383-410
  • Breitschwerdt EB, Maggi RG, Chomel BB, et al.: Bartonellosis: an emerging infectious disease of zoonotic importance to animals and human beings. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio). 2010, 20, 8-30
  • Breitschwerdt EB, Maggi RG: Comparative medical features of canine and human bartonellosis. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009, 15, 106-7
  • Chomel BB, Boulouis HJ, Maruyama S, et al.: Bartonella spp. in pets and effect on human health. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006, 12, 389-94
  • Chomel BB, Kasten RW: Bartonellosis, an increasingly recognized zoonosis. J Appl Microbiol. 2010, 109, 743-50
  • Duncan AB, Maggi RG, Breitschwerdt EB: A combined approach for the enhanced detection and isolation of Bartonella species in dog blood samples: pre-enrichment liquid culture followed by PCR and subculture onto agar plates. J Microbiol Methods. 2007, 69, 273-81
  • Gabriel MW, Henn J, Foley JE, et al.: Zoonotic Bartonella species in fleas collected on gray foxes (Urocyon cinereo argenteus). Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2009, 9, 597–602
  • Guptill L: Bartonellosis. Vet Microbiol. 2010, 140, 347-59
  • Henn JB, Chomel BB, Boulouis HJ, et al.: Bartonella rochalimae in raccoons, coyotes, and red foxes. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009, 15, 1984-7
  • Henn JB, Gabriel MW, Kasten RW, et al.: Infective endocarditis in a dog and the phylogenetic relationship of the associated "Bartonella rochalimae" strain with isolates from dogs, gray foxes, and a human. J Clin Microbiol. 2009, 47, 787-90
  • Pappalardo BL, Brown TT, Tompkins M, et al.: Immunopathology of Bartonella vinsonii (berkhoffii) in experimentally infected dogs. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2001, 83, 125-47

Occurrence Maps

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