A frequent co-infection with other tick-borne pathogens, transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, has been observed in dogs, coupled with a markedly increased risk of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii infection with tick infestations. Thus, R. sanguineus is assumed as a likely vector of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, but this supposition has not yet been proven.
Also Bartonella spp DNA has been found in other tick species like Ixodes pacificus or Ixodes ricinus. The finding of co-infection in ticks with different tick-borne pathogens – like Borrelia spp. or Babesia spp. – is not uncommon.
In dogs, co-infection with Bartonella spp. are supposed to influence the pathogenesis of other diseases, and due to the chronic immunosuppressive effects of Bartonella infections dogs may be predisposed to secondary infections.
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