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Canine Bartonellosis

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Co-infection

Dogs can be co-infected with other pathogens like Ehrlichia, Babesia or Rickettsia spp.

A frequent co-infection with other tick-borne pathogens, transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, has been observed in dogs, coupled with a markedly increased risk of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii infection with tick infestations. Thus, R. sanguineus is assumed as a likely vector of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, but this supposition has not yet been proven.

Also Bartonella spp DNA has been found in other tick species like Ixodes pacificus or Ixodes ricinus. The finding of co-infection in ticks with different tick-borne pathogens – like Borrelia spp. or Babesia spp. – is not uncommon.

In dogs, co-infection with Bartonella spp. are supposed to influence the pathogenesis of other diseases, and due to the chronic immunosuppressive effects of Bartonella infections dogs may be predisposed to secondary infections.

Further information

  • Agan BK, Dolan MJ: Laboratory diagnosis of Bartonella infections. Clin Lab Med. 2002, 22, 937-62
  • Billeter SA, Levy MG, Chomel BB, et al.: Vector transmission of Bartonella species with emphasis on the potential for tick transmission. Med Vet Entomol. 2008, 22, 1-15
  • Boulouis HJ, Chang CC, Henn JB, et al.: Factors associated with the rapid emergence of zoonotic Bartonella infections. Vet Res. 2005, 36, 383-410
  • Breitschwerdt EB, Maggi RG, Chomel BB, et al.: Bartonellosis: an emerging infectious disease of zoonotic importance to animals and human beings. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio). 2010, 20, 8-30
  • Breitschwerdt EB, Maggi RG: Comparative medical features of canine and human bartonellosis. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009, 15, 106-7
  • Chomel BB, Boulouis HJ, Maruyama S, et al.: Bartonella spp. in pets and effect on human health. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006, 12, 389-94
  • Chomel BB, Kasten RW: Bartonellosis, an increasingly recognized zoonosis. J Appl Microbiol. 2010, 109, 743-50
  • Duncan AB, Maggi RG, Breitschwerdt EB: A combined approach for the enhanced detection and isolation of Bartonella species in dog blood samples: pre-enrichment liquid culture followed by PCR and subculture onto agar plates. J Microbiol Methods. 2007, 69, 273-81
  • Gabriel MW, Henn J, Foley JE, et al.: Zoonotic Bartonella species in fleas collected on gray foxes (Urocyon cinereo argenteus). Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2009, 9, 597–602
  • Guptill L: Bartonellosis. Vet Microbiol. 2010, 140, 347-59
  • Henn JB, Chomel BB, Boulouis HJ, et al.: Bartonella rochalimae in raccoons, coyotes, and red foxes. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009, 15, 1984-7
  • Henn JB, Gabriel MW, Kasten RW, et al.: Infective endocarditis in a dog and the phylogenetic relationship of the associated "Bartonella rochalimae" strain with isolates from dogs, gray foxes, and a human. J Clin Microbiol. 2009, 47, 787-90
  • Pappalardo BL, Brown TT, Tompkins M, et al.: Immunopathology of Bartonella vinsonii (berkhoffii) in experimentally infected dogs. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2001, 83, 125-47

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